Sep 282017

From where does Rabbi Yonantan ben Shaul learn that if one can neutralize the pursuer, one is not allowed to kill him?  In what situations does one have to give oneself over to be killed when forced to do a transgression – for which transgressions?  In what situations would this also apply regardless of what mitzvot?  Are Bnei Noach also commanded to give themselves over to be killed?

Sep 272017

Is the law that one is allowed to kill someone who breaks into his house the same as the law of a rodef – a pursuer?  THe laws of a rodef are discussed – in which cases is one allowed to attack a pursuer?  Some cases are a subject of debate.  Is one allowed to kill the pursuer or just neutralize him/her?  Is the reason one is allowed to do it to prevent the pursuer from committing a serious crime or is it to save the victim?  Where are these laws derived from?  From where do we learn that one needs to save another from drowning, being attacked by an animal/armed robbers?

Sep 262017

Assumptions are made about a rebellious child regarding the course his future will take and therefore he is killed to prevent him from sinning further.  Assumptions are also made regarding a robber – the assumption is that a robber will come to kill if the owner of the house stands up to him and therefore it is permitted to kill him.  The gemara discusses the circumstances in which one can assume the robber is coming to kill.  Since at the time of the robbery, there is a “death penalty” on the robber, the robber is exempt from damages caused to the property because of the law that if one incurs two punishments at the same come, one is exempt from the more lenient one.  Rav takes this even further to say he is exempt from returning the stolen items.  Rava disagrees.  Does one who breaks into another’s house need to be warned?  Rav Huna says no.  The gemara raises questions and also potential proofs to Rav Huna’s statement, including a mishna in Ohalot that discusses aborting a fetus to save the mother’s life.

Sep 252017

More details that narrow the possibility of the rebellious son are brought.  A debate ensues regarding whether or not there was or ever will be a rebellious son.  A similar debate is brought regarding a city who all worship idols and a leprous house.  What is the exact process by which one can be convicted as a rebellious child and will get stoned?  If the son is brought to court but then runs away and by the time they catch him, he is no longer within the age range of one who can be killed for being a rebellious child, what happens?  It depends on whether he was convicted before he ran away.  A halacha is brought regarding a ben Noach who curses God and then converts – he is now innocent as the laws for him have changed.  Is it or is it not similar to the case in our mishna?  Various sources are brought as an attempt to prove or disprove this halacha but all are unsuccessful.

Sep 242017

Why is a daughter not killed for being a wayward child?  In order to be killed for being a wayward son, one needs to eat a certain amount of meat and drink a certain amount of wine.  However, there are various conditions set by the rabbis as to what type of meat/wine, what kind of meal, in what company, etc.  The dangers of wine are discussed through the lens of various stories/texts in the Tanach, including Adam, Noah, and King Solomon and additionally,  a debate about what type of tree the tree of knowledge was.  Details regarding exceptions brought in the mishna are discussed and compared to other sources that seem to contradict.

Sep 202017

The standard halacha is that one who violates Shabbat gets stoned.  However, there are two possible exceptions to this rule. In what cases is one who curses his mother or father stoned?  Details regarding one who incites others to worship idols is brought, including two important laws that an inciter can get killed even without being warned by witnesses and that if the inciter tried to incite an individual, he is allowed to hide witnesses and encourage him to incite again so as to be able to convict him.

Sep 192017

What are the definitions of the various types of witchcraft mentioned in the Torah?  Why is baal ov and yidoni mentioned in this mishna but in the mishna in critut only baal ov is mentioned?  Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish offer two different answers.  Their opinions are analyzed in the gemara.  What is considered an action?  Generally one is only obligated for actions, according to the rabbis.  How much of an action is needed to obligate one?  Is moving one’s lips an action? Bowing to an idol?  Rabbi Akiva obligates even without an action – but does he include any non-action?  Or does he have some minimal criteria?

Sep 182017

Did the Jews worship idols because they believed in them or for other reasons?  How is it that the evil inclination for idol worship doesn’t exist anymore?  A story, based on the elaboration on a verse if Zecharia is brought to illustrate how this transpired.  How does one violate the prohibition to pass one’s son or daughter to Molech?

Sep 172017

If one does various forbidden acts to another god and doesn’t know that it is forbidden and then finds out, is one obligated to bring several sin offerings for each act or is it all considered one act? Does one get lashes for acts that he does relating to idols mentioned in the mishna for which one does not receive the death penalty?  Is one allowed to mention the name of other gods or cause others (non Jews) to swear in the name of other gods?  Can one go into a partnership with an idol worshipper?