The mishna lists 4 topics where the Torah mentions 2 things that are forbidden and the rabbis extend it to 4, one of them being oaths that one takes that one will or will not do something, an oath of expression. Some of them incur the same type of sacrifice – a sliding one (what one brings depends on the financial means of the one obligated to bring the sacrifice). The mishna then digresses to the second category – one who goes to mikdash while impure (and forgot momentarily about being impure) or ate holy items while impure. The process of atonement through sacrifices for sins that one did unwittingly are discussed – what if one never realizes one’s mistake? What are the different categories and which sacrifices atone for which type? What is the difference between the sin offerings brought on Rosh Chodesh, the 3 holidays (regalim) and the one brought on YomKippur? What about all the other sacrifices brought on Yom Kippur and the one sent to Azazel? What is each one meant to atone for? Why do the Kohanim have their own offering with a separate confession?
While there are 613 mitzvot in the Torah, David and some of the prophets narrowed it down to a smaller list of the most basic mitzvot. Why were these specific ones chosen, most of them people justice and righteousness and involving relations between people and not God? The masechet ends with the famous story of Rabib Akiva laughing when seeing a fox running out of the kodesh kodashim after the destruction of the temple, while his friends were crying. Why is this how the gemara chose to end masechet makkot?
How were the lashes administered? What situations would provide enough embarrassment for the one getting the lashes that even if some of the lashes were given or in some cases, even if none were yet administered, one would already have fulfilled receiving the punishment? Why was the whip made from a calf and a donkey? An opinion is brought that one who is obligated to receive karet and then receives lashes for that sin, the lashes atone for one’s sin and the person will no longer receive karet. The value of keeping mitzvot and not doing transgressions is discussed by a number of rabbis in various types of statements in the mishna.
The mishna listed a case where one plowed and received eight sets of lashes because of unique circumstances. Does one get multiple punishments for an act on yom tov that involves multiple melachot (as one does on Shabbat)? If so, why isn’t planting also listed in the mishna? Eight other suggestions are made to cases that could have been brought in the mishna that would have added an additional set of lashes. Cases are brought regarding cross breeding with animals that are hekdesh and chulin. How many lashes does one receive? If one cannot receive that many, the court assesses how many they can receive (must be a number divisible by 3). What if they change the assessment? Does it depend on whether they already starting giving the person lashes or not? On what else is it dependent? How does an assessment work when there are multiple sets of lashes? How does the actual giving of lashes take place? What type of whip do they use? Where does the person receive the whipping?
Opinions are brought regarding whether putting the bikkurim beside the alter or reading the text of the bikkurim is critical to fulfilling the mitzva. The case of maaser sheni mentioned in the mishna is analyzed as it seems to also appear in the previous mishna.
Our mishna said that one who doesn’t take truma and maaser gets lashes but did not mention one who doesn’t give the maaser designated for the poor. Rav adds that case to the list and his opinion finds support in another tannitic source. Other sins are listed regarding beit hamikdash type sins that one would get lashes. Rabbi Shimon’s opinion that matches the mishna is brought in detail where he explains the derivation. His derivation is questioned and then reinterpreted.
Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish’s debates continue regarding whether one gets lashes for a doubtful warning (a warning given when it wasn’t clear whether the person was going to violate the prohibition) and a negative commandment that does not have an action associated with it. Both are derived from the same tanna – Rabbi Yehuda and the sources they use to support their opinions are brought. Rabbi Yochanan says that there are only 2 cases where one can get lashes for a negative commandment that has a positive commandment intended to fix it, as he holds that one only gets lashes if one nullifies the possibility for fixing it. One is sending the mother bird away. The other one he leaves to his student to figure out and the student makes various suggestions before arriving at a conclusion that it is Peah – leaving over the corner of the field for the poor. The next part of the mishna is discussed regarding lashes for creepy crawling creatures and it is explained that since there are various negative commandments in the Torah regarding these things, there are various cases where one could receive multiple sets of lashes.
This week’s shiurim are sponsored for refuah shleima for Avraham Moshe ben Pesha Etel
The Gemara brings Rabbi Yochanan’s opinions regarding a negative commandment that is preceded by a positive one. Does one get lashes or not. How is it different from a negative commandment that has a positive commandment written after it to”correct it” (lav hanitak l’asei). On what points does Reish Lakish disagree with him.
The debate between Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Yitzchak is discussed regarding whether or not one gets lashes for sins that one gets karet or death by the court. The gemara then relates to the source of the next part of the mishna – that one gets lashes for eating kodashim when they are impure. The source for this is a subject of debate.
More details regarding the accidental killer are discussed – Where is he buried? What happens if the kohen gadol if found out to be a chalal (son of a forbidden marriage)? Is the relative of the victim allowed to kill the murderer if he leaves the city? What if he is by a tree on the border where part is inside the border and part is outside?