Which mitzvot are only to be done in Israel and which ones also outside of Israel? Since there are many mitzvot in the Torah that say “when you come into the land” and yet some of them are not dependent on whether or not one is living in Israel, there are varying opinions on how to understand these verses and what was the determining factor for the categorization. As in the previous pages, the halacha and categorizations were known to the rabbis – what is happening on these pages is the rabbis attempt to correlate between the halacha and the verses in the Torah.
The discussion of how to derive from the Torah that women are obligated in non time bound positive commandments and exempted from time bound ones is continued. The gemara then brings 3 different sources for why women are obligated in negative commandments and has a discussion explaining the differences between all 3 and why they are each necessary. There are a few negative commandments that women are exempt from. The derivation of these is discussed at length. And another one is added by Isi in addition to the ones mentioned in the mishna and a derivation is brought and analyzed.
Women are exempt from time bound positive commandments and obligated in non time bound commandments. However there are a lot of exceptions to the rule. The derivations of these laws and their exceptions are brought. But what is really going on here behind the discussions of the derivations? Why are women exempt from some mitzvot and not others? An analysis of some of the basic approaches is discussed and how historical circumstances play a role.
The commandment to honor your elders – does this mean someone who is old or someone who is learned and old or just someone who is learned (even if they are not old)? Does it apply to non-Jews? Does one need to interrupt his work to stand for an elder? Does one need to spend money to keep this commandment? How does one determine what makes someone an elder? What age? What level of Torah learning? The elder himself has a responsibility not to walk in a place where too many people will need to stand up for him.
How does one honor a parent in death? What is the difference between fear and honor of parents? Is the financial responsibility also on the child? Or is one to take money from the parent? If a parent or a teacher or a nasi or a king is willing to forego respect for him/herself, can he/she? The obligation to respect elders – is it those who are Torah scholars or those who are old in years? or those who are both?
Is there a difference between and man and woman in terms of their obligation to honor their parents? How is the commandment to honor your parents linked to the commandment to honor God? The story of Dama ben Netina and others who fulfilled the mitzva of respecting their parents is brought. Some are praised and others criticized.
What are the ideals ages when a child will listen to his parents? Is a grandfather obligated to teach his grandson Torah? Different drashot are extrapolated on the word “Veshinantam” relating to what and how one should learn Torah. Drashot are also brought that teach that learning Torah is meant as protection from the evil inclination. The gemara continues to disucuss the various other obligations a man has toward his son – marrying him off, teaching him a trade and how to swim.
When one is obligated to swear about something, we can have him swear about something else that if it stod on its own, he would not be obligated to swear. What is the derivation of this law and in what cases does it apply? Items acquired through bartering are discussed – kinyan chalipin. Can this be done with money? Produce? Or only keilim, vessels? Items acquired by the temple treasury have different laws than regular items. Regular items can only be acquired through pulling while temple items are acquired with money. Designating something with words for the treasury is as if it was pulled.
Details regarding how and when and kinyan agav can be effected. This is a case where one acquired land at the same time as he is acquiring movable property and he can acquire the land and automatically the movable items are acquired also even though the method by which he acquired the land is not a method that would generally work for movable property. What is the source for gilgul shvua? This means that if you are obligated to swear about one thing, we can obligate you at the same time to swear about other things that you would not otherwise be obligated to swear about.
Land and movable property each have different mechanisms by which they can be acquired. The methods and their derivation are discussed.